Misconception based translation: If a husband is not capable to produce sperms (i.e. Impotent) ,then he have the right to order his wife. To copulate with other man to beget a child [RigVed Mantra 10 Sutra 10)
Questions raised basis the above translations and the Refuting answers are as below:-
Q a) Is it not that Vedas prescribe Niyoga Pratha?
Answer: This is not true.
Q b) Is it not what the above Mantra says? What is the true meaning of the Mantra?
Answer: No, the mantra only says that if someone does not consider himself to be able to perform his duties in a dual relation, he should allow the other person to seek other partner. This is a very broad principle that can apply in all situations of life – business partnership, master-servant, king-subject or marital relationship etc. Earlier people have tried to interpret this to justify Niyog and avoid prostitution. But Vedas do not get into such details.
Q c) What does niyoga means? Is it not exchanging wives?
Answer: Vedas do not have any word like Niyog. Niyog was a social custom invented for those times where people wanted a child to protect their property, have safety in old age etc but were unable to get a child due to some reason. Niyog literally means a union. It is understood to mean a temporary appointment. This is social custom and not a word from Vedas. In any case, even the social custom of Niyog was to PROHIBIT wife exchanging and hence means exactly opposite of what seem to perceived. In today’s society, when variety of new methods of fertility as well as options for adoption exists and the concept of patriarchal kingdoms has vanished, Niyog is not more applicable even as a social concept, in same manner as one need not wear dress of hide-skins when you live near a tailor shop and have money to by dresses.
Besides , the Rik Veda also say that if at all the women has taken a second man as the new husband(under the condition of first husband being impotent), her first husband cannot have any physical relation with her and he acts as her brother in relation.
Q d) What does the Mantra say?
Coming to current mantra 10.10.10 of Rigveda, it says:
Now Pati is a broad term – king is a pati, general is a pati, employer is a pati, parents are pati. Anyone who is supposed to take responsibility is a Pati.
The mantra says that if one is not able to assure happiness for his dependent, he should voluntarily allow the person to seek someone else as responsibility-taker. This mantra forms the reason why in Bharat, kings, when they got old, used to appoint a new ruler. Dont you think its the most ideal and noble concept?